24 February 2018
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Kaunas massacre of 29 October 1941
The largest mass murder
of Lithuanian Jews

Thousands of Jews were killed to fall in pits like these.

Kaunas massacre of 29 October 1941, also known as the Great Action, was the largest mass murder of Lithuanian Jews.

By the order of SS-Standartenführer Karl Jäger and SS-Rottenführer Helmut Rauca, the Sonderkommando under the leadership of SS-Obersturmführer Joachim Hamann, and 8 to 10 men from Einsatzkommando 3, in collaboration with Lithuanian henchmen, murdered 2,007 Jewish men, 2,920 women, and 4,273 children in a single day at the Ninth Fort, Kaunas, Lithuania.

With the arrival of the SS Einsatzgruppen, the 'Great Action' began on October 28th. The Jewish inhabitants of the Ghetto were assembled on Democrats Square and all those fit for work were allowed back into the Ghetto. The others, over 9,000 men, women and children were marched to the SS execution centre in the Ninth Fort and there, stripped of their clothes and in the freezing cold, they awaited their fate. In groups of 200, they were stood on the edge of large pits, dug previously by Russian P.O.W.s, and were systematically machine-gunned to death.

These mass graves were later re-opened and all the bodies burned in an attempt to conceal the crime. This work was done by 72 men and women from the ghetto. While working, the prisoners were chained together to prevent escapes but all were later put to death when their work was finished.

In July, 1944, the Ghetto was burned down, blown apart and completely destroyed. The Germans and Lithuanians destroyed the small ghetto on October 4, 1941, and killed almost all of its inhabitants at the Ninth Fort. Later that same month, on October 28, SS-Rottenführer Helmut Rauca of the Kaunas Gestapo (secret state police) conducted the selection in the Kaunas Ghetto. All ghetto inhabitants were forced to assemble in a central square of the ghetto. Rauca selected 9,200 Jewish men, women, and children, about one-third of the ghetto population. The next day, 29 October, they shot these people at the Ninth Fort in huge pits dug in advance. 
Jewish women, minutes before they are murdered by the
SS and their Lithuanian henchmen, Kaunas 1941.


At the end of 19th century, the city of Kaunas was fortified, and by 1890 it was encircled by eight forts and nine gun batteries. The construction of the Ninth Fort (its numerical designation having stuck as a proper noun) began in 1902 and was completed on the eve of World War I. From 1924 on, the Ninth Fort was used as the Kaunas City prison.

During the years of Soviet occupation, 1940-1941, the Ninth Fort was used by the NKVD to house political prisoners on their way to the labour camps in Siberia.

During the years of Nazi occupation, the Ninth Fort was put to use as a place of mass murder. At least 10,000 Jews, most of Kaunas, largely taken from the Kovno Ghetto, were transported to the Ninth Fort and killed by Nazis with the collaboration of some Lithuanians in what became known as the Kaunas massacre.

Notable among the victims was Rabbi Elchonon Wasserman of Baranovitch. In addition, Jews from as far as France, Austria and Germany were brought to Kaunas during the course of Nazi occupation and executed in the Ninth Fort. On 1943 the Germans operated special Jewish squads to open the massgraves and burn the remaining corpses. Such squad of 62 people managed to escape the fortress on the eve of 1944. In 1944, as the Soviets moved in, the Germans liquidated the ghetto and what had by then come to be known as the "Fort of Death", and the prisoners were dispersed to other camps. After World War II, the Soviets again used the Ninth Fort as a prison for several years. From 1948 to 1958, farm organizations were run out of the Ninth Fort.

In 1958, a museum was established in the Ninth Fort. In 1959, a first exposition was prepared in four cells telling about Nazi war crimes carried out in Lithuania. In 1960, the discovery, cataloguing, and forensic investigation of local mass murder sites began in an effort to gain knowledge regarding the scope of these crimes.
Through this door, 64 prisoners escaped on 25 December 1943.


The Ninth Fort museum contains collections of historical artifacts related both to Soviet atrocities and the Nazi genocide, as well as materials related to the earlier history of Kaunas and Ninth Fort.

The memorial to the victims of Nazism at the Ninth Fort in Kaunas, Lithuania, was designed by sculptor A. Ambraziunas. Erected in 1984, the monument is 105 feet (32 m) high. The mass burial place of the victims of the massacres carried out in the fort is a grass field, marked by a simple yet frankly worded memorial written in several languages. It reads, "This is the place where Nazis and their assistants killed more than 30,000 Jews from Lithuania and other European countries."

On April 11, 2011, the memorial to the victims of Nazism was vandalized - The memorial tombstones were knocked down, and white swastikas were sprayed on the memorial. On the adjacent sidewalk, the words “Juden raus” (German: Jews Out) were inscribed.
Kaunas – A sign saying “Jews out” and “Hitler was right” (Juden raus“„Hitleris buvo teisus“)
were hung in front of the synagogue on April 20th 2011, Hitler's day of birth.

Category : Litvak forum
  • karma dibs

    Shabbat shalom! I am Lithuanian jew and also hail from Ameruca., and am fiercely proud of my ancestory. I support all jews and Israel in the fight against antisemitism which, sadly, has begun to rear it’s ugly head once more…I did not expect the people to forget so soon.

    April 03 2015

    • What happened to my comment from this morning?

      December 29 2012

      • I am proud to be of Lithuanian ancestry, as I am proud to be an American. I doubt that there is a country in the world where hate does not exist, but I am deeply saddened when I see the hatred in Lithuania, or the hatred in America, What does hatred do? Not good, that is certain – hatred begets hatred, hatred leads to worse things than just hateful thoughts or words. The pictures in the above article display the ultimate in hatred, the hatred of the Jews or anyone not hating as the haters wish. In a previous article about Lithuania after the war, there are similar pictures of Russians shooting Lithuanians who resisted ,in the back of the head. This is hatred. It has no bounds, it does no good, it is self defeating. If the world would learn to love, as the prophets of the great religions teach, such things as this will never happen.
        Years ago I published LABAS the Lithuanian Ezine and I got input from people around the world. One such person was a teacher in Holland who took his students to Lithuania, to Kaunas, to the ninth fort. The students were then required to write of their experience. He sent me the best writing which I published. (unfortunately, my publication is gone) In this letter, a young girl wrote of her feelings as she walked around the fort. Very dramatic – she heard the cries of the dying, she heard the screams of the children, she heard the boot stomping of the killers, she heard the shots ring out. It was very vivid and well written. Again, unfortunately, I had people tell me to take them off my mailing list because I would dare to publish something like this. Sad that we can not learn from our mistakes. Sad that we can not lose the hatred and turn to love. Hitler was not right, hatred is not right, no one should be condemned for their beliefs, as long as those beliefs are based on the love that was taught by the great prophets.

        December 28 2012


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